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Albert, E. Maxwell (Bill),  AKA Ernest Albert, Jr.
American, 1890-1955
The youngest child of the painter Ernest Albert (1857-1946) and his wife Annie Elizabeth Bagwell Maxwell (1858-1925), E. Maxwell (Bill) Albert was born on August 1, 1890 at their residence at 5141 Hibbard Avenue in Chicago, Illinois. Following the dissolution of artistic partnership between Ernest Albert Sr., Oliver Grover and Walter Burridge, Albert Sr. moved his family to “Grayeyres” in Rochelle Park, New Rochelle, New York where Ernest, Jr. attended public schools. In 1905, E. Maxwell Albert Jr. began his studies at the Art Student League in New York and in 1906 he painted a watercolor of Grand Central which is in the New York Historical Society Collection. In 1908, both father and son visited Old Lyme, Connecticut for part of the summer to sketch the picturesque countryside and to meet the denizens of the artist’s colony. They boarded with Miss. Florence Griswold at “The Holy House”, a beautiful old colonial house, which was a favorite haunt of visiting painters. Here they met (Thomas) Woodrow Wilson, then President of Princeton University and his wife, the former Ellen Axson, whose aspiration toward the arts drew them to Lyme.  In 1909, both artists joined the Association. Ernest, Jr. also joined the Art Student League where he studied for four years under such men as L Lewis Moran, Frank Vincent Dumond and Edward Ruffer. In addition, he studied under his father for three years.

His first exhibition was with Norman Rockwell and Vic Forsythe in 1916 at the New Rochelle Library where the Evening Standard headlined that Ernest Albert, Jr. “Gives Promise of Artist Strength”. His works in the exhibition include landscapes from Maine and Old Lyme along with works titled: A Japanese Garden, and Afternoon Tea.

In 1917, Ernest Jr. exhibited four works in the Third Annual Exhibition of the New Canaan Society of Artists and provided sketches and posters for the Red Cross Auction Sale at the Society’s Red Barn. Also in 1917, Ernest Jr. was elected to membership in New York’s Salmagundi Club. The 1918 Annual Exhibition on Oil Paintings at the Club included December by Ernest, Jr.

On June 22, 1918, Ernest Jr. was inducted into the US Army and sent to Camp Meade, MD where shortly after his arrival the flu swept the camp and the country which he described as gruesome. In November, he was granted leave to help his mother who was convalescing from the influenza and on December 9th of that year he was honorably discharged. As the world got back to normal after WWI, Jr. accompanied his parents and friends to Mohegan and later to New Canaan to make arrangements for the 4th Annual Exhibition of the New Canaan Society’s Annual Exhibition. This was to be the last Exhibition at the Red Barn and Ernest, Jr. exhibited six paintings.

In 1921, Ernest Albert, Jr. was elected into the National Art Club in New York and into the New Rochelle Art Association. Indeed, the headlines for December 16, 1921 in the Evening Standard read: “Some Say Ernest Albert, Jr. Is Surpassing His Famous Sire”. The article indicates that the more recent efforts of the younger Albert show decided rapid development and that he has broken away from his Father’s Influence. Ernest, Jr. won the Adolph Grant Prize that year for his work entitled The Hills, a study of brown winter uplands and gray trees reflected in a woodland pond. And, in 1923, he won the Salmagundi Club’s E. Irving Prize for a winter landscape. It was during this time, as he developed as an artist and as a man, Ernest, Jr. became increasing known as E. Maxwell Albert and by 1924 he became sought after by galleries of the day such as Casson Galleries in Copley Square in Boston. He also provided the cover of Country Life for which he received payment for in May of 1924. He is noted in Who’s Who in New England as living as a “Commercial Artist with the Wing-Thayer Advertising Company and the Charles Daniel Frey Advertising Company for 1920-1921 and having his own landscaping studio since 1922. It also notes his residency as New Canaan and that he was a member of the Salmagundi Club, the Lyme Art Association, the Allied Artists of America, Silver Mine Guild. It also mentioned he was a Presbyterian and a Republican.

In 1925 he had a single exhibition of 38 paintings at the Holt Gallery on Lexington Avenue in New York and he is included in Who’s Who in Art, 1925. In 1926, after a successful exhibition at the Holt, he contemplated marriage to Miss Stella Walters of New Canaan but it is not known why they did not marry.

During the Depression, E. Maxwell remained a bachelor and much of his time was spent with his sister and brother-in-law, Edith and Thad Du Flon. E. Maxwell, known to his friends and family as Bill, was a familiar and popular figure around town in New Canaan. In addition to painting, Bill completed delicate and exacting restoration work and he worked on the government’s Art Project. As a result of this, his works are in the state office building at Connecticut’s capital, Hartford. Years later, after his death, several of his paintings of Mead Park in New Canaan were given to the town and hung in the Town Hall Meeting Rooms. His works are in numerous public and private collections.

E. Maxwell Albert died in 1955, at the age of sixty-five, just nine years after his father’s death.

Sources include the papers of Andrea Razek, grand niece of the artist and compiled by Jackie Wolf Heinl. Submitted, reviewed and posted on

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Albert, Ernest
American, 1857 - 1946

A distinguished theatrical and scenic designer who also became a landscape painter and muralist, Ernest Albert worked in New York, St. Louis, and Chicago.

He was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1857, and showing early talent, he received the Graham Art Medal* at age 15, while he was studying at the Brooklyn Art Institute.  Though Albert had some early success as a newspaper artist, his introduction to the theater world in 1877 began a career in stage design; he worked on productions starring most of the best-known performers of the day. During this time in 1879, he employed and befriended young Jules Guerin, who went on to become the Lincoln Memorial Muralist.

From New York City, Albert went to St. Louis in 1880, and five years later to Chicago. In 1892, he became involved with the Chicago World's Colombian Exposition*. He was responsible for the color schemes and ornamental design of many of the interiors of buildings in that renowned and successful fair. While in Chicago, he helped found the American Society of Scenic Painters.

In 1894, Albert returned to New York City, where, from then on, his work in scenic design was centered. His Albert Studios did the sets for many successful productions. All along, he had painted whenever he could snatch the time. At the pinnacle of his career in 1905, he began to withdraw gradually from his theater work. His family was settled in the striking new house he had built in New Rochelle, New York; his financial independence was established; and from then on, he devoted most of his considerable talent and energy to his landscapes.

Albert's landscapes, painted mostly in Old Lyme, Connecticut and later on Monhegan Island, Maine (as well as a few on the West Coast), are simple in composition but subtle in effect. His impressionistic rendering of color and light imbue his quiet country scenes with all the magic of the moment. The gentle strength of these pictures and of his still lifes ensured their popularity and earned him a place as one of America's respected artists.

Albert was active in several organizations and was a founder and first president of the Allied Artists of America*.

Michael David Zellman, 300 Years of American Art
Peter Hastings Falk, Editor, Who Was Who in American Art

Armfield, George Smith
British, 1840-1875
George Armfield Smith, as he was known until the year 1840, was born in Wales. His father was a painter, who for some time had a studio at 54, Pall Mall, London. His father apprenticed him to a maker of fishing tackle - it may be that George's early promise was overshadowed by that of a brother, William, who was given a regular art education, and was sent to Rome to prosecute his studies. George did not serve his full term of apprenticeship. Before he was sixteen years old he devoted himself to painting, and, as his works found ready sale, his career as an artist was assured. He first exhibited in the year 1839, at the British Institution, when he showed two pictures, the "Study of a Dog's Head" and "Terrier chasing a Rabbit." These works must have attracted notice, for in the SPORTING MAGAZINE of the following year, 1840, we find the first of a long series of his pictures which were engraved for that publication on.

In 1840 he exhibited for the first time at the Royal Academy, showing two pictures, "Fox and Wild Rabbits" and "Terrier and Rabbit," and, as the lists show, he continued to exhibit with regularity at both the Academy and the British Institution for the ensuing twenty years. He also sent pictures frequently to the Suffolk Street exhibitions. The British Institution catalogue gives his address in 1839 as 15, Lamb's Conduit Passage; but if he resided there at this time, he could not have remained long, as he spent practically all his life at Camberwell, Clapham, and Brixton.

His best period extended from 1840 to about 1869, and during these years his output was large. About 1870 his sight began to fail, and in 1872 he submitted to an operation on one of his eyes at Guy's Hospital, when Dr. Bader removed the lens. The operation was only partially successful, and his powers rapidly declined, he became the victim of fits of acute depression, in one of which he attempted to take his own life. He recovered from the self-inflicted wound, and continued to paint, but latterly was able to work only with the aid of a powerful glass and on small canvases.

So greatly had his powers of earning decreased, that in 1893 a pension of 20 pounds per annum was granted him by the Royal Academy; he died, however, before drawing the first installment of it. George Armfield was married three times. He was very young when he took his first wife; by her he had no children; by his second wife he had one daughter, and by the third, twelve children, one of whom, George, followed in his father's footsteps as a painter of animals, more especially dogs. The painter died at Clapham in August, 1893, and was buried at Norwood.

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Barbarroux, Edmond Paul Auguste  
French, 1882-1948
Inscribed miniature costal oil on board.  The artist produced similar works for the tourist trade in France.

Baum, Walter Emerson
American, 1884-1956
Well known as the critic for the "Philadelphia Bulletin" and for his landscape work, was born in Sellersville, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in 1884. His entire life was spent in Sellersville, where he painted landscapes of the local countryside, and cityscapes depicting the antiquated architecture of his and other local towns.

He received his initial training in 1904 from William Trego, a painter of military scenes. He entered the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts six years later, in 1910, and studied with Thomas Eakin's teacher, Thomas Anshutz. Daniel Garber, an influential member of the New Hope Landscape School, and member of the Academy's faculty, also influenced Baum's work and style.

Baum often painted the area's seasonal changes working en plein air, occasionally painting snowstorms in the snowstorm itself. In the mid 1930's, he traveled to Europe, painting and visiting many museums. His trip was relatively short as he was eager to return home and resume painting the Delaware Valley's scenery.

His works were completed in tempera, watercolor, oil, and pastels, numbering more than 2000. Although most of his paintings were landscapes, he completed many quaint cityscapes of nearby Allentown and Manayunk.

In 1921, Baum began teaching art, and founded the Baum School in Allentown. For thirty years, ending in 1956, Baum worked as art editor and critic for the "Philadelphia Evening" and "Sunday Bulletin", writing more than 500 reviews. He died in 1956.

Source: David Zellman, "300 Years of American Art"

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Beatty, John Wesley
American, 1850-1924

John Wesley Beatty's legacy as an artist would be surpassed by the official positions he held and impact on the region's appreciation and understanding of art.  As the first director of the Department of Fine Arts at the Carnegie Institute, Beatty would organize and oversee the development of the Carnegie Internationale.  In addition, along with George Hetzel, he would open the Pittsburgh Art School and involve himself in many other functions directly related to the promotion of artists and art in Pittsburgh and beyond.
As an artist, John Beatty would begin as a silver engraver in Pittsburgh before going to Munich to study formally. Upon his return, his passion was painting but most of his activity would be in the area of illustrating and etching.  Around 1890, he would finally pursue his preference to paint with oil. Most of the works he produced would include horses and men working the land.

Bentley, John William
American, 1880-1951
John William Bentley was born in Paterson, New Jersey in 1880.  He became a student at the Art Students League with George Bridgman, Frank DuMond, and Robert Henri, John Bentley became a landscape painter. He was an early member of the Woodstock Art Colony, and exhibited at the Buffalo Society of Artists (prize), the Sacramento State Fair (prize) and the Ridgewood Artist Association (prize). He was also a WPA artist, and his work is in several buildings in New York City and the Dutch Reformed Church of Woodstock.  He died in Kingston, NY in 1951. Source: Peter Falk, "Who Was Who in American Art"

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Briscoe, Franklin D. 
American, 1844-1903)
Franklin D. Briscoe is best known for his masterful renderings of marine views. He established a successful painting career and was highly regarded as a competent marine painter during his lifetime. Briscoe is considered to be a versatile artist whose work included history painting and portraiture as well as seascapes.

Briscoe was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1844. At the age of four his family moved to Philadelphia, where Briscoe he trained with eminent marine artist Thomas Moran (1860) and in Europe. He studied the masters in London, Paris and other continental cities and by the age of 25 was considered a proficient landscape and marine painter. Traveling by ship all over the world many times, Briscoe found many marine subjects during extended voyages. In 1885 he painted a major historical mural The Battle of Gettysburg that measured 13 feet tall x 230 feet long (ten panels). The mural was exhibited throughout the country, and is now housed in the archives of the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana.

Briscoe exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the Brooklyn Art Association. His works are included in the collections of the Butler Institute of American Art, the Sheldon Museum of Art, the Smithsonian American Art Museum, and the Pennsylvania Museum of Art to name a few.

Although Briscoe traveled the world extensively, he maintained his residence in Philadelphia throughout his life and died there in 1903.

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Brunel de Neuville, Alfred Arthur
French, 1851-1941

A highly skilled artist of the French school, Alfred Arthur Brunel de Neuville painted primarily animals, still lifes, fruits, and occasionally flowers. A student of his father, he received a rather basic foundation in the fine art of painting, and spent the rest of his career elaborating upon it, improving his talents all the while.

In 1879, Brunel de Neuville began exhibiting at the famed Paris Salon. That first year, he presented to the audience a piece entitled Pommes et raisin, and then in 1880 showed his Halte de chasse, a scene of frolicking kittens very appreciated and widely executed at the time. In 1889, he began to exhibit at the Salon des Artistes Francais with a canvas depicting a still life of fish, and continued participating in shows at this institution until 1909. In 1907, this group made him an associated member.

In his celebrated still lifes of fruits, the velvety richness of their smooth and silky texture is set in opposition to the rougher material of wicker baskets. Brunel de Neuville was in addition rather well-known for his wonderful ability to render the texture and shine of copper pots, and this aspect of his oeuvre is commonly reproduced and cited. In the history of French painting, he most definitely earned a lasting reputation as a
highly skilled artist with a fantastic ability to bring the contents of his canvases to life.


Benezit, Emmanuel. Dictionnaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs, et
Graveurs. (Paris: Librairie Grund, 1976, 1999).

Hardouin-Fugier, Elisabeth and Etienne Grafe. French Flower Painters of the
19th Century: A Dictionary. (London: Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd., 1989).

Hardouin-Fuger, Elisabeth and Etienne Grafe. Les Peintres de Fleurs en
France de Redoute a Redon. (Paris: Les Editions de l'Amateur, 1992).

Hardouin- Fugier, Elisabeth. Les Peintres de Natures Mortes en France au
XIXe Siecle. (Paris: Les Editions de l'Amateur, 1998).

Schurr, Gerald and Pierre Cabanne. Dictionnaire des Petits Maitres de la
Peinture 1820 - 1920. (Paris: Les Editions de l'Amateur, 1996).

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Bryant,  Everett Lloyd
American, 1864-1945
A painter and muralist, Everett Bryant was known for his floral still lifes and
landscapes in watercolor and oil. He was raised in Galion, Ohio, and showed early
art talent but had no formal study until he was age 28.

He studied in London with Herbert Herkomer and Monat Loudan, and later in Paris with
M. Blanc and Thomas Couture. After three years in Europe, he shared business
pursuits with his brother that included a trip to Alaska.

Returning to art, he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts under Thomas
Anshutz, William Merritt Chase, and Cecilia Beaux. He married Maude Drein, a fellow
student in 1904, and they traveled in Europe. They also spent much time in Southern
Maryland, Maine and New Hampshire. In 1909, he moved to Baltimore and in 1930 to
Los Angeles where he was active until his death on September 7, 1945. From
California, he took numerous sketching trips into Arizona and Nevada.

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Cameron, Simon
American, 1799 - 1889
A consummate machine boss who "never forgot a friend or forgave an enemy," Simon Cameron spent many years behind the scenes in Pennsylvania politics. Thanks to his early, effective support for Andrew Jackson, Cameron was put in charge of patronage for the state in the 1830s. He served as a printer, Indian claims adjuster, railroad builder, and banker before running for the Senate in 1845, replacing James Buchanan, who had joined James K. Polk's cabinet. By 1856, Cameron had joined the Republicans. In exchange for his support of Lincoln at the Republican Convention of 1860, Cameron was named secretary of war. Rampant corruption forced his resignation early in 1862, and Lincoln named him ambassador to Russia. Brady photographed Cameron in Washington around 1858, when he became the first Republican senator from Pennsylvania.

Chambers, Thomas
American (1808-1866/1869)
Born in England to a merchant sailor and a washerwoman, Thomas Chambers became a painter known for landscape and marine scenes, especially of the Hudson River from Albany and from New York City, all in naive, primitive style with bold color, rhythmic shapes, and strong contours applied with brush-work that made his work seem vital and lively. He differed from most painters of primitive style because, influenced by his decorative style, he used large, rhythmic shapes with light and shadow instead of flat forms. And he certainly differed in style from the Hudson River School of Painting that, influenced by European painting, was becoming active at the time he started his career in America. In that era, some persons were disdainful of the Hudson River painters as being too influenced by Europeans, but in the 21st century, reportedly "Chamber's cartoonlike energy and rhythmic sense of design continue to appeal to modern taste". (Foster) Of the artist, it was written in a 2008 exhibition catalogue for the Philadelphia Museum of Art that he was "a self-taught artist who operated in the zone between folk and fine art (and) was this country's first modern artist." (Foster) This designation was supported by a 1942 exhibition catalogue title of his work, T. Chambers...First American Modern." Little is known about much of the life of Thomas Chambers. His given birth and death dates are estimates with both 1808 and 1815 listed for him, but 1808 has become the accepted date. It is known that he came to America in 1832, likely without formal art training, and became a naturalized citizen. About that same year, he went to New Orleans where he signed a declaration of intention to become a citizen there. From 1834 to 1843, he was listed in the New York City directory and advertised in the City Directory as a marine and landscape painter and restorer of old paintings. The ad read: "Fancy painting of every description done to order"; from 1843 to 1851 in Boston; and then in Albany and back to New York City. He may have lived beyond 1866, but it is thought he returned to England and died there. Among the titles of his Hudson River paintings are Staten Island and the Narrows (Brooklyn Museum), Villa on the Hudson near Weehawken. (New York State Historical Association) Some of his most dramatic paintings were naval battles of the American Revolution and the War of 1812. He also did portraits, but none of them have been found. Much that is known about his artwork comes from knowledge of prints made from his originals.

Sources include: Michael David Zellman, 300 Years of American Art Kathleen A. Foster: Thomas Chambers (1808-1869, American Marine and Landscape Painter Peter Falk, Who Was Who in American Art John Howat, The Hudson River and Its Painters

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Clays, P. J.
Belgian, 1817-1900
As a marine painter and a prolific artist, he was best known for his paintings of the Scheldt. 
He concentrated on the areas around the Lower Scheldt and the river Thames, infusing both with references from 17th Century Dutch naval painting. His early work was influenced by Realism before he fully developed into his own style of painting. His painting is in Previous Inventory.

Coffin, William Anderson
American, 1855-1925

Landscape and figure painter William Anderson Coffin was born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania in 1855. After study at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, he left for Paris in 1877 to continue his art education. Coffin studied in the atelier of academic artist Leon Bonnat, possibly for up to five years, where he painted the figure and continued drawing and painting from casts of classical sculpture that had first captured his interest at Yale. Coffin exhibited in the Paris Salons of 1879, 1880 and 1882. The painting shown in 1879 represented the students at work in Bonnat's figure painting class. His landscapes were influenced by the Barbizon School of French artists.

In 1883, Coffin came to live and work in New York City, participating in many exhibitions, including the National Academy of Design in 1889. He was a fixture in the art world of his day, a well-known art critic who wrote articles for "Scribner's" and "Harper's Weekly", among other publications. Coffin held the position of art critic for the" New York Evening Post" from 1886-1891, and was art editor at the "New York Sun" from 1896-1901.

Coffin was an important figure in both the Pan-American Exposition in 1901, and Panama- Pacific Exposition in 1915. He directed the Fine Arts Division in the former, and helped organize the latter. He was also involved in other artists' groups, holding office in several, including the Municipal Art Society and the American Fine Arts Society.

His other memberships include the Lotos Club, Architectural League of New York and the National Academy of Design. He received the Webb Prize from the Society of American Artists in 1891. Coffin's work is in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City and the National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, D. C.

William Anderson Coffin died in New York City in 1925.

Michael David Zellman, "300 Years of American Art"

Corbiere, Roger
French, 1893-?
Corbiere is known for his landscape and coastal scenes.

Craig, Thomas Bigelow
American, 1849 - 1924
Known for his bucolic landscapes with grazing cows, Thomas Craig was born in Philadelphia where he remained until 1889 and then moved to New York City until 1899. He finally settled in Rutherford, New Jersey, but maintained a summer studio in Woodland Valle, near Phoenicia, New York. It is believed that Craig was largely self taught, but his activity in the Philadelphia Sketch Club, 1873 to 1876, suggests he was a student of Thomas Eakins. He frequently painted in the White Mountains of New Hampshire and in the countryside of both Pennsylvania and New Jersey.

Mr. Craig's works are included in the Butler Institute of American Art, The Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art, The Washington County Museum of Fine Art, The State Museum of Pennsylvania, the Mobile Museum of Art and the Newark Museum. He was a Member of the National Academy, Salmagundi Club and Artists Fund Society and exhibited at these venues as well as at the Pennsylvania Academy, Philadelphia Art Club (1876), Philadelphia Exposition, Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Art Club, Brooklyn Art Association and Society for Independent Artists. He exhibited for forty-five years at the National Academy of Design.

Sources include:
Peter Falk, Who Was Who in American Art William Patterson & David Zellin, Thomas Eakins and His Fellow Artists at the Philadelphia Sketch Club

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Crane, Robert Bruce
American, 1857-1937
Robert Bruce Crane was born in New York City on October 17, 1857. The son of Solomon Bruce Crane and Leah Gillespie, he was educated in New York's public schools and was exposed to the city's galleries and museums by his father, himself an amateur painter. By the age of seventeen, Crane had moved to Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he was employed as a draftsman by an architect and builder. He soon decided to devote his career to painting, and about 1876 or 1877 sought the guidance of the landscape painter Alexander H. Wyant, with whom he subsequently shared a close friendship until Wyant's death in 1892.

Between 1878 and 1882, Crane attended the Art Students League in New York and traveled to Europe for further study. In the United States during this period, he painted in New Jersey; East Hampton, Long Island; and the Adirondacks. He wrote to his father from the Adirondacks that among the influential painters working nearby at the time were Eastman Johnson, George and James Smillie, and Samuel Coleman, and he described the dramatic terrain: "Went to the famous Rainbow Falls which several artists have tried to paint . . . Wyant and Hart among them . . . over the top comes tumbling the water which strikes every few feet throwing a spray which catches the sun giving a most charming as well as wonderful appearance."

Crane spent time in East Hampton, on the eastern end of Long Island, during the summer of 1880 or 1881 and possibly during other summers. From there he wrote his father that the painters "Stimson, Dellenbaugh, Moran, Robbins and Coleman are here . . . I have finished the study of an old house . . . and the artists say that [it] is exceedingly good."

In another note he described some of his typical subjects at this time: "I have been working on a 20 x 30 [inch] subject, a row of apple trees, gigantic in size . . . I commence in a few days the study sheep."

In these early works, Crane painstakingly reproduced the pastures, hayfields, and barnyards of rural East Hampton. A critic later remarked that "Troubled or placid skies, the bright luminous atmosphere of a summer's day, or the gray tones of autumn were given in these pictures, not only with truth to nature and a certain poetic sentiment, but with a brilliant sparkling quality of effect.

Source: Clark, Charles Teaze; "Bruce Crane, Tonalist Painter", Antiques Magazine, November, 1982.

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Crawford, Earl
American,  1891 - 1960
Earl Crawford was a landscape painter from Pittsburgh where he maintained a studio at 7346 Whipple Street and in Detroit where he lived on the East Side. Born in Johnstown, Pennsylvania on June 5, 1891, Crawford studied at the Carnegie Institute, the University of Pittsburgh and with Christian J. Walker. He was a member of the Golden Triangle Association and the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh exhibiting at both origination's annual exhibitions in the 1930s and 1940s. At the 32nd exhibition of the Associated Artists in 1942 he received an honorable mention, and at the 34th annual in 1944, Crawford was awarded the Ida Smith Memorial Prize for best landscape in oil In a review of the show by the origination's vice president, Clarence H. Carter, Crawford was praised for his Slaymaker Farm, "in which the reds of the earth and the blues of the sky are intensified and balanced in such a way that they make for one of the most feeling and tasteful canvases to come from his hand".

In 1946, Crawford received the honor of being invited to participate in the Carnegie Institute's 13th annual Exhibition of Paintings by Pittsburgh Artists. Popularly known as the Summer Show, the exhibition was devoted exclusively to works in oils by artists who lived and worked in Pittsburgh. Crawford also exhibited at the Butler Art Institute, Youngstown, Ohio in 1944 and 1945; the Indiana State Teachers College, Indiana, Pennsylvania, in 1945 (prize) and in 1946; and at Parkersburgh, West Virginia, in 1945 and 1946. His works are included at the Steidle Gallery at Penn State University.

Fox, Henry Charles
(British 1855 1929)
This London based artist is best known as a watercolorist and etcher who exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1880 and continued thereafter for the remainder of his life. His idyllic scenes of country life gained immense popularity and the influence of W.H. Hunt and J.F. Lewis can be seen in his paintings as shown by the stippling manner of his style. He did not view the harsh facts of rural existence with the realism which Van Gogh so much admired in such contemporize "graphic" artists as Holl and Fildes. Rather, his softer vision belongs to the well-established pastoral tradition practiced earlier in the century by such artists as Palmer, Linnell and Calvery, and has an undeniable nostalgic charm.

Francisco, John Bond
American, 1863 - 1931
Born in Cincinnati, John Bond Fancisco became a painter of mountain and desert landscapes with dramatic lighting effects along with still life and portrait paintings. He studied art and music at Ohio State University and also went to Europe, painting with Fechner in Berlin and Nauen in Munich. In Paris, he studied at the Julian and Colarossi Academies, and his teachers were William Adolphe Bouguereau, Tony Robert-Fleury, and Gustave Courtois. He also painted in Switzerland, Germany, and France, and took violin lessons in Berlin and Paris.

In 1887, he settled in Los Angeles where he married and spent the remainder of his life, combining careers of fine art painting and music. His home and studio at 1401 Albany Street became a popular gathering place for artists and musicians. In 1897, he helped form the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra and was its first concert master.

He painted mountain and tree landscapes and glowing desert scenes, often painting with landscapist Elmer Wachtel. He was first in northern Arizona in 1906 as a guest of the Santa Fe Railroad, and one of his Grand Canyon views was used for a travel ad.
Edan Hughes, Artists in California, 1786-1940

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Fredericks, Ernest
American, 1877 - ?
Born in McPherson, Kansas of Swedish parents in 1877, Ernest Fredericks later moved to Chicago to study art, heavily influenced by Swedish artist and fellow Kansan Birger Sandzen of Lindsborg. Earlier works were signed Ernest Fredericks, a pseudonym. He made his way to Eureka Springs, Arkansas in later life to paint and teach under his real name of Fred Swedlun. Fred and his son Glenn Swedlun taught art classes in the Ozarks. Many of the regional landscape paintings from Ernest are of this area and are signed Fred Swedlun. He died in the 1950s.

Fulton, Samuel
Scottish, 1855-1941
Born in Glasgow, Fulton painted animals, chiefly dogs. His work is characterized by broad, flat brushstrokes, with some of his work having a very sketchy quality. His painting, "Fox Hounds" is in the Glasgow Art Gallery.  His name can be found in the Preferred Artist List for Scotland,

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Gasser, Henry Martin
American, 1909 - 1981
Painter, lecturer, teacher, illustrator and author, Henry Gasser was born in Newark, New Jersey on Oct. 31,1909. He lived, studied and worked in New Jersey for his entire life. A Master at watercolor and oil his work consisted of, in his own words, "everyday subjects that are available to most of us-street scenes, back yards, trees, old houses, etc I looked for them in front of houses, in backyards, public parks, and elsewhere". He also painted numerous harbor and fishing village scenes. His work demonstrated a sense of place and feeling that most could identify with. He often "exhausted a subject" which becomes evident when viewing the body of his work for many of his paintings are just slight variations of previously completed compositions. His Paintings also contain a great deal of what he called "solitary silence" created by chosen subject matter such as a "Coming Storm", "Night in the Park", "Shadows"... He felt that Design was very important and meant the difference between a mediocre work and a truly professional one. It is here where Gasser excelled, his work demonstrates a sense of composition that gained wide spread appreciation for his work. He got his background in art studying at the Newark School of Fine and Industrial Art and the Grand Central School of Art. This was followed by study at the Art Students League of New York in the classes of Robert Bracman. He later studied privately under John R. Grabach. He is represented in over fifty museum collections and numerous important private ones as well. Among the awards that Henry Gasser has received are the Hallgarten Prize at the National Academy, the Zabriskie, Osborne, and Obrig prizes at the American Watercolor Society, the Philadelphia watercolor club prize, the Allied Artists Gold Medal at Oakland, California and many others. He was a member of the National academy of Design, the American Watercolor Society, the Royal Society of Art (Great Britain), the Salmagundi Club, the Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington Watercolor Clubs and the New Jersey Watercolor Society. He was a life member of the National Arts Club, Grand Central Art Galleries and the Art Students League and others. He served as Director of the Newark School of Fine and Industrial Art from 1946-54 then continued lecturing and demonstrating for most of the remainder of his life. He also wrote numerous books on painting. He died in Orange, NJ in 1981.
Source: Blake Benton Fine Art


Gechtoff, Leonid
American, 1883 - 1941
An American artist who lived much of the time in Cairo, Egypt, Gechtoff painted in the American southwest and also had a close affiliation with the state of Pennsylvania.  His technique involved very heavy impasto, and his subjects were landscapes including desert scenes, Middle Eastern subjects, mosques, nude figures, and marine.

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Gorson, Aaron Harry
American, 1872-1933

Kovno was a city with a thriving textile industry, and at age thirteen Gorson was apprenticed to a tailor. In 1888 he emigrated to the United States to join an older brother in Philadelphia. He soon found employment and worked as a machine operator in a clothing factory during the day, while at night he attended classes at the Spring Garden Institute to pursue his dream of becoming a painter.

Gorson married in 1894 and enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, studying under Thomas Anshutz and being trained in the school of realism established by Anshutz's teacher Thomas Eakins. While attending school between 1894-1896 and 1897-98, he continued to work and obtained portrait commissions. One of his major patrons at this time was the Rabbi Leonard Levy, who arranged for Gorson to study in Paris for a year in 1899. In 1900, Gorson enrolled at the Academie Julian where he received instruction from visiting lecturers from the Ecole de Beaux-Arts, such as J. J. Benjamin constant and Jean-Paul Laurens. Gorson also attended evening classes at the Academie Colarossi, a school that was located near the studio of the one painter who probably influenced him the most, James Abbott McNeill Whistler. He was a member of the American Art Association of Paris and the Union International des Beaux Arts et des Lettres, Paris. Later, in the mid-1910's, Gorson was honored in Paris for his industrial landscapes.

Returning to Philadelphia, Gorson worked to receive portrait commissions. He was accepted at the 1902 exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and had his portrait of a violinist hung in the Room of Honor. The same year he exhibited a life-size painting of a young girl at the Art Institute of Chicago, and also received an award from the American Art Society. Gorson left Philadelphia in 1903 and moved to Pittsburgh. He began to paint the steel mills of Pittsburgh and other industrial towns, a career that lasted almost 20 years.

Gorson exhibited at the Corcoran Gallery, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts, the Indianapolis Museum of Fine Arts, the City Art Museum of St. Louis, and at Rochester's University Art Gallery. He showed in fourteen exhibitions at the National Academy of design between 1912 and 1933, at the Pan-American Exhibition in Los Angeles in 1915, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, and also had his work shown in galleries in Boston, Detroit, and New York.

In 1921, Gorson moved to New York City and began painting scenes of the city and views of the Hudson River, and continued to produce paintings of the steel mills of Pittsburgh. He was a founding member of the Grand Central Art Galleries, and belonged to the American Federation of Arts, the Brooklyn Society of Artists, the Art Alliance of America, and the Salmagundi Club. His works were handled by the John Levy Galleries, Cronyn & Lowndes Galleries, and Knoedler &Y Co., in New York, and by the J. J. Gillespie Galleries and Wunderly's Gallery in Pittsburgh. He died in New York at the age of sixty-one on October 11, 1933.

Gorson's paintings are in numerous private and public collections, including the Carnegie Museum of Art; the Andrew W. Mellon Collection; the Charles M. Schwab Collection; the Westmoreland County Museum of Art; New York University; Mellon Bank Corporation, Pittsburgh; PPG Industries, Inc.; the Duquesne club, Huntington, New York; and the Pittsburgh Art Collection, owned by the Pittsburgh School Board, and was included int eh exhibition of the collection at the Carnegie Institute in November 1942.

In 1967 a retrospective exhibition of Gorson's paintings was held at the Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute and at the Spanierman Gallery in New York the following year. He was included in the "Art in Nineteenth Century Pittsburgh" at the University of Pittsburgh Art Gallery in 1977. In 1989, the Spanierman Gallery and the University held an exhibition of thirty-six paintings in "The Power and the Glory: Pittsburgh Industrial Landscapes by Aaron Harry Gorson (1872-1933)."
Ref: Falk, Who Was Who In American Art;

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